Sunday, November 2, 2014
Oxycodone is a semi-synthetic chemical that resembles morphine and has a chemical structure resembling codeine .It is obtained from a flowering plant of the family papaveraceae called poppy .It is a strong pain killer which can relief pain ranging from moderate to severe .It was developed in the year 1916 in Germany and has been used clinically all around the globe since 1917 .While it is being used as a very effective pain killer , its prolonged use can lead to its addiction .It increases sensitivity to pain ,thus we can say it first increases the pain sensitivity and then is used to reduce the pain it causes . It has various side effects which include constipation , fatigue , dizziness , nausea , anxiety etc. It causes respiratory depression , decreases cough reflex , excessive constriction of pupil , it decreases secretion of hydrochloric acid in the stomach and delays digestion in small intestines. It can cause severe hypo-tension , elevate cerebro spinal fluid pressure , enhance the neuro-muscular blocking action of skeletal muscles.
However due to its excellent ability to pain ,it is even used for relieving cancer pain . In contarary to other pain killer medication It is very addictive drug and has severe withdrawal symptoms ,so it is advised to gradually discontinue its use rather than abruptly. Withdrawal symptoms may include panic attack , muscle pain ,weakness and tremors. It is seen that even new born's can develop the withdrawal symptoms if there pregnant mothers are addicted to this drug. Its continuous use can cause hormonal imbalance which can lead to diminished functional activity of testes in males and ovaries in females and may considerably diminish sex hormones.
Overdose of this drug can cause cardiac arrest , respiratory arrest , circulatory depression , respiratory depression , hypo-tension , haemorrhage's and shock .It can be taken orally , but there are other ways of taking it as well ,for example , intra-muscular , intra-venous ,intra-nasal , subcutaneous , transdermal ,rectal and epidural .Long term use of this drug has shown carcinogenic potential , male and female infertility .
It has shown potential risk to fetus ,and can prolong labor , reduce strength and frequency of contractions in pregnant women. It can cause various skin problems like rash , sweating , herpes , simplex and urticaria . It can even cause urinary track infection .Apart from respiratory depression it can also cause bronchitis , dyspnea , epistaxis , laryngismus , lung disorder , pharyngitis , rhinitis and sinusitis . It can also cause certain nervous disorders like nervousness ,personality disorders , vasodilation ,neuralgia , dry mouth , confusion , agitation , hypersthesia. It can cause musculoskeletal disorders like arthralgia , arthritis , bone pain , myalgia and pathological fracture.It can also cause anemia and leukopenia. It leads to certain digestive disorders like anorexia , diarrhea , dyspepsia , gingivitis , glossitis and nausea and vomiting.
It can also lead to metabolic and nutritional malfunctions like edema , gout , hyperglycemia , iron deficiency and peripheral edema Oxycodone is usually excreted through urine and sweat thus it has a possibility of getting accumulated in people with disorders related to kidney. Oxycodone can stay in your body fluids for as long as four days . It is seen that this drug can stay in your blood for 24-hours in urine .it can be detected for 3-4 days while in saliva for 1-4 days . Being a synthetic drug it can be detected by various drug tests. It is excreted by human body , but its constant and prolonged use can lead to its accumulation .